Detection of video double encoding with GOP size estimation
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D. Vázquez-Padín, M. Fontani, T. Bianchi, P. Comesaña, A. Piva, M. Barni,
Detection of video double encoding with GOP size estimation“,
in Proceedings of WIFS 2012, Dec. 2012,  Tenerife, Spain

Video forensics is an emerging discipline, that aims at inferring information about the processing history undergone by a digital video in a blind fashion. In this work we introduce a new forensic footprint and, based on it, propose a method for detecting whether a video has been encodedtwice; if this is the case, we also estimate the size of the Group Of Pictures (GOP) employed during the first encoding. As shown in the experiments, the footprint proves to be very robust even in realistic settings (i.e., when encoding is carried out using typical compression rates), that are rarely addressed by existing techniques.