A.De Rosa, M.Fontani, M.Massai, A.Piva, M.Barni,
“Second-Order Statistics Analysis to Cope With Contrast Enhancement Counter-Forensics,”
in IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 22, n. 8, pp 1132-1136, Jan 2015
Image forensic analysis for the detection of contrast enhancement and other histogram-based processing, usually relies on the study of first-order statistics derived from image histogram. Methods based on such an approach, though, are easily circumvented by adopting some counter-forensic attacks. To overcome such a problem, we propose a novel forensic technique based on the study of second-order statistics derived from the co-occurrence matrix. The experiments we carried out demonstrate that the proposed approach is very effective even in the presence of counter-forensic attacks, while it retains the good performance of histogram-based methods when no attack is present.